Such a study tests causal hypotheses without random assignment. Those who question homework want to weaken curriculum and pander to students’ laziness. In a longitudinal study conducted by Keith, Diamond-Hallam, and Fine , researchers used structural equation models to examine the effects of in-school versus out-of-school homework on high school students. Structural equation modeling provides a more rigorous method of examining relationships between variables than path analysis alone Garson Because approximately eighty-seven percent of the first eighteen years of a child’s life is spent outside of school, parents have the opportunity to exert a great degree of influence over their child’s time Walberg, Paschal, and Weinstein Project MUSE Mission Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. However, this is not necessarily the case.
However, numerous shortcomings still exist in the seventeen studies Cooper examined. An experimental study conducted by Murphy and Decker revealed that the majority of teachers approximately three-quarters of them check and grade homework. Although not explicitly linked to achievement, it is logical to assume that these factors lead to improved achievement. Caloocan High School 10 th ave. High-achieving students who have extra resources from home, they say, benefit from homework because they have more opportunities to complete it and often get help with assignments. Specific types of homework can be very beneficial to students with learning disabilities, however.
Of the studies that do exist, researchers have focused on the two most frequently reported purposes of homework: While the use of incentives has been shown to increase clutts completion rates, most such studies have focused on learning disabled students in math classes and homewkrk to examine the effects of teacher feedback on other groups of students or in other content areas. Today, however, increased demands for accountability are being put on public education.
Given the shortcomings of correlational studies, Cooper a and Cooper and colleagues suggest an emphasis on experimental and quasi-experimental studies. Several researchers contend that low-performing students spend more time on homework than high-performing students do De Jong, Westerhof, and Creemers ; Epstein and Van Voorhis Paschal, Weinstein, and Walberg discovered through a meta-analysis of fifteen quantitative studies that homework did have a positive effect on achievement, especially in certain grade levels.
Homework can be further classified by level of interaction, or the social context in which it is completed; that is, independently, by a group of students, or with help from a parent, sibling, or other individual Cooper a.
However, numerous shortcomings still exist in the seventeen studies Cooper examined. In “The Homework Myth”Kohn says calling the relationship between homework and achievement inconclusive may be too generous, arguing there is no conclusive evidence that homework provides any benefits—either academic or nonacademic—to students.
What is the Purpose of Homework?
Although homework cannot serve as an easy answer to raising student achievement, the literature suggests that it can have a direct effect on student learning under certain conditions and an indirect effect under other conditions.
Age, then, is but one of the factors that need to be taken into account when assessing the association between homework and student learning. Their study, which addressed several concerns regarding the possible effects of students’ age, yielded these findings: Kohn follows the same line of thought: Does homework improve academic achievement? Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
De Jong and colleagues argue that when students are grouped on the basis of ability, teachers assign more homework to high-performing students than to low-performing students, perhaps because they expect more from the high achievers Burstein Lower-achieving students may take more time than higher-achieving students to finish assignments.
Assign homework to help students deepen their understanding of content, practice skills in order to become faster or more proficient, or learn new content on a surface level.
Project MUSE – Meanings of Homework and Implications for Practice
It is important to note, however, that correlational studies such as these show only that one or more factors are associated with others. Little or no research has been conducted on the effects of noninstructional homework.
Log In Sign Up. In this nationally representative study, the researchers concluded that, relative to other ethnic groups, homework had a stronger impact on Asian American students than on those of other ethnicities.
In other words, Keith’s model does not explicitly show a causal link between homework and achievement, but coutta shows that such a link is possible.
What research says about the value of homework: Research review | Center for Public Education
Age, then, is but one of the factors that need to be taken into account when cotuts the association between homework and student learning. However, Cooper and colleagues caution against viewing the grade-level effect as fact. Caloocan High School 10 th ave. Homework may serve different purposes at the elementary and secondary levels.
Epstein examined homework, parent involvement, and student achievement in elementary schools. However, this is not necessarily the case. Homework motivation and preference: Such coytts study tests causal hypotheses without random assignment. Unfortunately, research and commentary offer conflicting conclusions on homework.
Much research has been conducted to try to understand the ways in which various types of homework and various situations influence different groups of students. The lack of unequivocal connections cotts homework and learning, combined with strong opinions both for and against homework, may spur policymakers to take a closer look at the issue.
Accounting for variables in students’ backgrounds, their teachers, and the involvement of their families, Van Voorhis found that students who completed more science homework earned higher science grades on their report cards. For instance, although student achievement has been found to be higher in classes where homework was assigned than in homeework without homework, methodological weaknesses temper the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn from 20044 studies.
Given the shortcomings of correlational studies, Cooper a and Cooper and colleagues suggest an emphasis on experimental and quasi-experimental studies.