For almost three acts, Agrippine is forced to demand that she be permitted to see her son. We will look at aggression and persecution in the context of social breakdown and the role played by passion, making detailed textual analyses to support our investigation. Moreover, even if the love is not reciprocal, it is seen as a betrayal at the time of refusal, and precipitates revenge. Gallimard, , p. The characters find themselves in situations of incommunicability,20 a factor which is directly related to the psychological profile of each one of them.

The discourse taking place between these two characters can be considered as a dialogue de sourds, where each individual assesses the facts differently and they do not hear each other. Such was modern tragedy for Racine: This section has dealt with the problematic aspects of language and discourse. Not knowing just what one should say, or saying more than one intends, clues us into a break with Cornelian heroism and by exten- sion with an entire conception of tragedy. All that surrounds him pleads for Agrippina; Love, duty, reverence, he owes you all. Roxane is a slave herself but has been given the power of life and death over Bajazet, which is an exercise of ultimate power.

racine berenice resume

You know that son of the Amazon, That prince so long, now, by myself oppressed? He has neither the patience, nor the discretion not to always express what he has in his heart: Roxane as the aggressor tries to justify her aggression towards Bajazet by transforming his refusal to acquiesce to her demands into a crime, because she is the individual who wields most power in the relationship that exists between her and Bajazet: This is how Levinas answers those who say that to be responsible for everything is to be responsible for nothing.

In it he stated his poetic doctrine and analysed contemporary poetry. We will now turn to an analysis of the effects of passion in Andromaque.


racine berenice resume

In Andromaque, Pyrrhus presents his captive, Andromaque with the following dilemma: As we mentioned earlier, the same applies to Bajazet bérénce Amurat is the absent but omnipresent aggressor. She does not seek to manipulate either the truth or the others. We also learn that Acomat himself is a victim of the sultan: Gallimard, is a mine of historical information on the plays and their literary and cultural context.

These extracts show us the extremes to which the characters resort under the influence of the persecuting presence of a diswertation.

dissertation bérénice 1670

We consider these excessive passions as the meanings assigned to the creature by the writer, a creature that modifies the behaviour and character of the individual into another, whose main concern becomes the fulfilment of the passion. When the components of Racinian authoritarianism are analysed, authoritarian aggression and authoritarian submission are generally accepted as being relevant in the understanding of the authoritarian personality and how that promotes violence.

We argue that this defection from consciousness, coupled with unfulfilled desire, is another basis for aggression.

dissertation bérénice 1670

This section has outlined dissertxtion major trends in Racinian scholarship, and shown dissertaton they do not include an application of the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas to the work of the dramatist.

A few lines later, as the avowal of her desire for Hippolyte sticks in her throat, she accuses one goddess in particular of a multigenerational grudge: Most importantly, the relationships of aggression and persecution are often established between characters that belong to the same caste or lineage, making the stage a privileged place where close family members destroy each other.

dissertation bérénice 1670

It is for this reason that Pyrrhus tries to blackmail Andromaque: Tragedy, by this reckoning, became the expression of an entire meta- physical worldview in which individuals could only cower under the gaze of a inscrutable hidden deity. In Racinian tragedy, these elements persecution and aggression symbolise the failure of these relations when the persecutors fail to acknowledge the humanity of the Other.


The spectator is constantly reminded of the omnipresence of violence through the use of vocabulary specifically connoting violence and suffering. The ambiguity of language fails to satisfy the desires of speaker and listener for stable agreed meaning and mutual recognition. University of California, The thesis attempts to answer these questions with reference to the following tragedies by Racine: The expression is also found three times in Andromaque, and we will quote two of them: We must render these duties; it is unjust to refuse them, and unjust to ask others.

It approaches the Other not to face him, but obliquely – not, to be sure, as a thing, since rhetoric remains conversation, and across all its artifices goes unto the Other, solicits his yes The relationships between victims and aggressors are important because this is the conduit through which aggression passes from one character to the other.

Béténice of Toronto Press, In analysing this concept, Edgoose asserts that: It is for this that it is pre-eminently violence, that is, disertation. University of Pennsylvania Press, 40 ibid. Sacred dread there is, but it is experienced by spectators only through the prism of the heroine and other characters. Smith and Barbara Harshav New York: The Atrides are targets of celestial vengeance, whose origin can be traced back to the sun le Soleil when he discovered the illegitimate love between Venus and Mars.