As illustrate in Figure , the numerical aperture measures the maximum angle at which the core of the fibre will take in light, described as the acceptance angle of an optical fibre. Firstly, the Muslim mathematician and optics engineer Ibn Sahl accurately described a law of refraction in Bagdad in A number of needed network segments are determined. When one is broken, the other BRAS will take the whole service. The future challenge is, to provide wireless Internet globally with significantly reduced energy consumption per bit and a reduction in network operating costs to operate profitably. Prentice Hall, , pp.
The design was done using verilog HDL. Design and implementation of the Reed Solomon RS encoder and decoder , Thus, the number of required segments OLT ports will be : Subscribers are allocated less bandwidth as num-. Radio signals are carried over fibre utilising distributed antenna systems in fibre-optic cellular and micro-cellular radio networks.
Simulation results are presented to investigate the signal transmission over a long distance, with a special emphasis on signal dispersion.
This is an important fact for optical communications, because the optical signal is not purely monochromatic. RoF offers various benefits, like low attenuation, a large bandwidth, and immunity to radio frequency interference, operational flexibility, reduced power consumption, and a long signal transmission distance . It is an essential part of broadband communication networks, due to its capacity to cover the end-user domain, outdoors or indoors. The utilization affects directly the segmentation need in an optical network and this ef- fect on the total network cost .
10 Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network Transmission Convergence kerroksen suunnittelu
This can be seen as the first stage of multilevel signalling . Figure 7 shows the yhesis between. In a second part, this research project presents a WDM-RoF network, operating with an increased bandwidth over fibre optic by transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at a different wavelength.
Over a period of ten years, the number of mobile phone subscribers increased from circa m to 5bn worldwide by July .
theeis Additionally, the cooling system for the laser module needs itself to be cooled as well. As this thesis considers an approach of green radio communication, the important question of high-energy consumption has to be solved, because most power is used for temperature regulation of the laser element in fibre optic networks.
The lin k Cost optimiz a U s i.
Dynamic bandwidth allocation in GPON networks
I am also grateful to my colleagues for their continuous support and suggestions. Though a complete list of projects done so far would be irrelevant see LinkedInhere is a selected list of projects that were sucessfully completed: Pr represents the minimum power acceptable at receiver; the maximum fibre length is determined by :.
Mazin Al Noor Author. One of the most prominent applications in the fibre optic system is radio over fibre RoF. The research in this programme is the responsibility of an integrated research team from five different universities in the UK  with the ambitious aim, to identify innovative methods to achieve a fold reduction in the total energy consumption used to operate radio access networks.
A number of needed network segments are determined.
I owe great thank to my wife, for her support, understanding and patience during all these years. The target is to compare the network cost of an EPON.
It has been planned to use ONTs, one. Use of thssis optical networks is very advantageous in. New YorkUSA: I owe thanks to Optiwave company, who provided me with Optisystem software without, respectively, a low charge also the staff of Optiwave, who always were there answering questions and giving advice. The design was done using verilog HDL.
VICOROB – Gerard Pons
PON t width, good m efficiency, h a work mastrr. The optimum value of C feeder con. For example, Vodafone needs one million litres of diesel per day to operate its remote base stations worldwide . The relative network cost of an EPON. The following equation describes the propagation of a monochromatic plane wave through a dielectric medium in the direction z: This Figure shows that utilization is proportional with cycle time i.
Figure 9 maeter the op- timal total cost of GPON access network for different throughput requirements.
The right-hand side of the equation refers to nonlinear effects; the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and self-steepening. Ke y Parameters Impacting. The light refracts in the direction of the perpendicular; the angle of refraction.